Camel as reservoir evidence list

List of sources of evidence for the hypothesis of dromedary camels as a source of MERS-CoV in humans.

These tables are for reference and are the basis of some of the arguments made in this page.

Serology

  country date of sampling # positive # tested proportion tItre Notes
Reusken et al (2013) Oman 2013 50 50 100% 320-2560

8-12 years old
retired racing camels

Reusken et al (2013) Spain (Canary Is.) 2012/2013 15 195 14% 20-320 Adults from Moroco
Haagmans et al (2013) Qatar 2013-10-17 14 14 100%   Owned by case #161. 3 PCR positive
Perera et al (2013) Egypt 2013-06 103 110 94% 40- 1280 Negative in camels from Hong Kong (controls), and humans in Egypt
Hamida et al (2013) KSA (Al-Ahsa & Riyadh) 2010-2013 280 310 90%   Negative sheep, goats, cattle and chickens
Meyer et al (2013) UAE 2003 151 151 100% most >1,280  
Meyer et al (2013) UAE 2013 481 500 96% most >1,280  
Alagaili et al (2014) KSA 2013-11 to 2013-12 150 203 74%    
 Chu et al (2014) Egypt 2013-06 to 2013-12 4 110 3.6%  

PCR positive (1 complete genome).
Imported from Sudan or Ethiopia for slaughter

 

 

Cases with contact with camels

Case Number
Epidemic/FluTrackers

Code Date Location Notes
14 / 3 60M 2012-06-06 Bisha, KSA First case. Owned 4 pet camels.
19 / 7 31M 2012-11-03 Riyadh KSA Attended the slaughtering of a camel on October 24
30 / 17 73M 2013-03-08 Abu Dhabi, UAE Contact with sick camels prior to onset.
124 / 106 38M 2013-08-08 Hafr Al-Batin, KSA WSJ article reports contact with sick camel
161 / 144 61M 2013-10-11 Doha, Qatar Owns a farm and has had significant contact with the animals, including camels
167 / 167 23M 2013-10-27 Doha, Qatar Works in barn of case #161
172 / 156 43M 2013-10-27 Jeddah, KSA Owns camel that tested positive by PCR
203 / 187 66M 2014-01-20 Abu Dhabi, UAE Owns camels in UAE and has recent travel history to Oman from 20 January 2014 where he had contact with camels
211 / 195 68M 2014-03-01 Abu Dhabi, UAE Owns a farm that he visits daily, and where he had contact with animals, including camels which he breeds.
213 / 197 19M 2014-03-01 Al-Kharj, KSA Had a history of exposure to animals, including camels.
218 / ? 68M 2014-03-07 Abu Dhabi, UAE He frequently visits Saudi Arabia where he owns a camel farm.

 

Cases with contact with unspecified animals or not-camels

Case Number
Epidemic/FluTrackers

Code Date Location Notes
16 / 5 45M 2012-10-09 Riyadh, KSA Three days prior to the onset of illness, he had visited a local farm near his home in Riyadh where he had a brief contact with farm animals.
27 / 102 51M 2013-02-13 Riyadh, KSA Had a farm outside Riyadh, in which he kept sheep, chicken, ducks and pigeons
28 / 15 39M 2013-03-08 Riyadh, KSA  
191 / 173 73M 2013-10-11 Riyadh, KSA He had exposure to animals
205 / 189 58M 2014-02-02 Al-Ahsa, KSA Was reported to have had contact with animals
208 / 193 51M 2014-02-28 Riyadh, KSA Was reported to have had contact with animals

 


References

Haagmans et al (2013) "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in dromedary camels: an outbreak investigation" The Lancet Infectious Diseases.

Hemida MG, Perera RA, Wang P, et al. (2013) Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus seroprevalence in domestic livestock in Saudi Arabia, 2010 to 2013. Eurosurveill. 50 20659

Meyer B, Mueller MA, Corman VM, et al (2014) Antibodies against MERS coronavirus in dromedary camels, United Arab Emirates, 2003 and 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. Online access.

Perera RA, Wang P, Gomaa MR, et al (2013). Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, June 2013. Euro Surveill. 18 20574. Available online

Reusken et al (2013) "Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralising serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study" The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 13: 859 - 866.

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